18 Friday January 2019
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Iquine Restraint

  Iquine Restraint   In many regards, restraint is the single most important aspect of the equine physical examination. Without adequate restraint, the examiner will be unable to complete a meaningful examination. The size and strength of horses make the

Equine Obstetrics...

Equine Obstetrics The average gestation length for mares is 340 days although this can vary widely and can be as long as 360 days or more. Factors that may affect the length of gestation include sex of the foal, season, maternal nutrition, ingested toxins and environmental stresses. Nearin

Overview of Pulmonar...

Overview of Pulmonary Emphysema

Overview of Pulmonary Emphysema: we major forms of pulmonary emphysema are generally recognized. Alveolar emphysema is abnormal permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole and destruction of alveolar septal walls without apparent fibrosis. Interstitial emphysema is the

Equine Influenza...

Equine Influenza

Equine Influenza:   Etiology and Epidemiology: Equine influenza is highly contagious and spreads rapidly among susceptible horses. Two immunologically distinct influenza viruses have been found in horse populations worldwide except in Iceland and New Zealand. Orthomyxovirus A/Equi-1 has

Overview of Diaphrag...

Overview of Diaphragmatic Hernia

Overview of Diaphragmatic Hernia: A break in the continuity of the diaphragm allows protrusion of abdominal viscera into the thorax. Etiology: In small animals, automobile-related trauma is a common cause of diaphragmatic hernia, although congenital defects of the diaphragm may also result in h

Strangles in Horses...

Strangles in Horses

Strangles in Horses:         Strangles is an infectious, contagious disease of Equidae characterized by abscessation of the lymphoid tissue of the upper respiratory tract. The causative organism, Streptococcus equi equi, is highly host-adapted and produces cl

Overview of Aspirati...

Overview of Aspiration Pneumonia

Overview of Aspiration Pneumonia: Aspiration pneumonia is a pulmonary infection characterized by inflammation and necrosis due to inhalation of foreign material. The severity of the inflammatory response depends on the material aspirated, the type of bacteria aspirated, and the distribution of as

Overview of Lungworm...


  Overview of Lungworm Infection An infection of the lower respiratory tract, usually resulting in bronchitis or pneumonia, can be caused by any of several parasitic nematodes, including Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle and D eckerti in deer; D arnfieldi in donkeys and horses; D filaria, Pr