21 Sunday July 2019
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POX in camels


Definition and Epidemiology:
Camel pox is one of the most important viral diseases and has been reported from all parts of world where camels are kept. Skin lesions appear 1–3 days after the onset of fever, the incidence of disease is higher in males than females, and the mortality rate is greater in young animals than in adults. The mortality rate in adult animals is between 5% and 28% and in young animals between 25% and 100%.


Etiology:
Causative agent is an orthopox virus “Orthopox cameli”


Clinical sympotoms:
Skin lesions appear, developing into papules and vesicles, and later turning into pustules. Crusts develop on the ruptured pustules. Starting as erythematous macules, developing into papules and vesicles, and later turning into pustules. Crusts develop on the ruptured pustules. These lesions first appear on the head, eyelids, nostrils and the margins of the ears. In severe cases the whole head may be swollen.
Later, skin lesions may extend to the neck, limbs, genitalia, mammary glands and perineum.In the generalised form, pox lesions may cover the entire body. Skin lesions may take up to 4–6 weeks to heal.


Diagnosis:
The presumptive diagnosis of camelpox infection is based on clinical signs. However, infections of camels with ORF, papilloma virus and reaction to insect bites are considered differential diagnosis in the early clinical stages and in mild cases of camelpox. 
Serological tests: A wide range of serological tests are available to identify camelpox. The tests used for the detection of the antibodies against camelpox virus include neutralisation, agar gel precipitation, haemagglutination, haemagglutination inhibition, CFT, fluorescent antibody and antibody capturing ELISA. Identification of the causative agent is done by:
•    Transmission electron microscopy.
•    Virus isolation in cell cultures.

Treatment and Prevention: 
•    There is no special treatment, for secondary infection relief.
•     Antibiotics Penicillin  
•    Antipyretics
•    Antihistamin 
•    Potassium permanganate(1:1000) can be used to wash the infected area
•    A live attenuated vaccine,Ducapox, is manufactured by Highveld Biologicals, Onderstepoort, South Africa and an inactivated vaccine by Biopharma, Rabat, Morocco are two commercial vaccines available for control of camel pox. A live attenuated vaccine gives long-term protection against camelpox.
•    However, a booster vaccination is recommended for young animals vaccinated before the age of 6–9 months. When inactivated vaccine is used, the animals must be vaccinated annually